About Environmental Performance Results
Data in this section on environmental performance represent total quantities for Xerox’s manufacturing, research, development and equipment recovery/recycle operations in nine countries. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are reported across all our operations. With the exception of solid waste figures that reflect management of recovered post-consumer electronic waste, the data do not include Xerox office equipment manufacturing operations, which were outsourced in late 2001 to Flextronics, an electronics manufacturing company. Unless otherwise noted, all numbers represent worldwide totals and are reported in generally accepted international metrics.
Xerox facilities released 43 metric tons of regulated chemicals and particulates into the air in 2008, a 2% increase from 2007. The increase came primarily from an increase in production and process inefficiencies in a single plant that have since been corrected.
2008 Air Emissions: Distribution by Type
Most of Xerox’s air emissions come from operations that manufacture Xerox imaging supplies – toners, inks, fusers and photoreceptors. Effectively executing strategies for reduction, reuse and recycling between 1991 and 1996 resulted in a reduction of air emissions by 87% during that period. Since then, declines in production, continuous improvements in our processes and changing technologies have resulted in additional reductions, totaling a 94% reduction from 1991 levels. While we have not adopted a specific target for reducing air emissions, continuous improvement remains a priority.
2008 Air Emissions
Ozone Depleting Substances
Xerox operations worldwide conform to the Xerox Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) Policy, established in 1992, that prohibits ODS from all Xerox products, services and processes. Use is restricted to refrigerants only.
Worldwide hazardous waste volumes decreased 10% between 2007 and 2008 due to lower production volumes. Xerox strives to deploy effective waste disposal and to minimize hazardous waste generation. Through treatment, recycling, energy recovery or fuels blending, 96% of hazardous waste generated in 2008 was beneficially managed. The remaining 4% was incinerated or disposed in landfills permitted to accept hazardous waste. The largest reported hazardous waste stream in 2008 was wastewater from an electroplating process. The rinse waters from this process are treated in a neutralization process for pH adjustment prior to discharge to the sanitary sewer under our wastewater discharge permit. The second-largest waste stream is related to organic solvent waste. Captured using efficient reclamation systems, organic waste is sent off-site for recycling or energy recovery. Off-site recycling converts waste into reusable products.
2008 Hazardous Waste Management
Hazardous Waste Generation
Water Consumption and Treatment
As part of our commitment to conserve resources, Xerox monitors water consumption at its facilities worldwide. Water consumption decreased 15% in 2008 compared with 2007 due to building consolidations, production decreases, equipment decommissioning, seasonal variation and increased awareness of water usage.
Wastewater from manufacturing processes is treated where necessary before being discharged into local sanitary sewers. The treatment includes adjusting pH and, as necessary, removing suspended solids. In addition, the company engages best-management practices to prevent unwanted pollutants from entering waterways via surface contamination and run-off. Extensive sampling of wastewater discharged to both sanitary and storm sewers ensures that discharged water meets our strict requirements.
Non-hazardous Solid Waste
Xerox recycled 92% of its non-hazardous solid waste in 2008 – unchanged from 2007.
Non-hazardous Solid Waste Recycling Rate: All Facilities
In addition to typical solid waste generated from manufacturing, construction and maintenance, Xerox manages end-of-life machines returned to Xerox equipment recovery/recycle facilities. Returned equipment and parts that cannot be reused through remanufacturing, which we classify as “equipment waste,” made up 67% of the non-hazardous solid waste managed by Xerox operations in 2008.
2008 Non-hazardous Waste Management: Distribution by Type
Equipment that reaches the end of its useful life is returned to Xerox equipment recovery/recycle facilities. To maximize environmental and financial benefits, Xerox first evaluates returned equipment for its reuse potential. Products suitable for reuse undergo the rigorous equipment remanufacture processes described here.
Returned products that cannot be remanufactured are designated as equipment waste. Xerox equipment recovery/recycle operations disassemble these machines for recycling, removing parts that can be processed for reuse according to stringent standards for quality and performance. The remaining components are recycled or disposed. Of the 41,000 metric tons collected in 2008, Xerox was able to reuse or recycle 98%.
We also carefully manage suppliers that provide recycling and waste disposal services. An audit process ensures that vendor practices are safe, environmentally sound and compliant with regulations. Where appropriate, we require these companies to document the final disposition of materials sent to their facilities, including electronic scrap. Xerox does not allow its vendors to send electronic scrap overseas for processing.
Equipment Waste: Equipment Recovery/Recycle Operations
Xerox manufacturing operations generated 20,000 metric tons of non-hazardous solid waste in 2008, compared with 21,000 metric tons in 2007. The waste stream consists primarily of paper, wood pallets, plastics and packaging waste such as corrugated cardboard. It also includes manufacturing-related wastes such as scrap metal, waste toner, waste batteries and lamps, and miscellaneous trash. In 2008, 85% of this waste was reused or recycled, compared with 81% in 2007.
Xerox has had waste reduction efforts in place for many years that include reusable boxes, pallets and containers for parts delivery, reuse of toner that is outside the acceptable size range during manufacturing, and reusable totes for recycling scrap metal and paper.
Process Waste: Manufacturing, Research and Development Operations