Financial Risk Management
We are exposed to market risk from foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates, which could affect operating results, financial position and cash flows. We manage our exposure to these market risks through our regular operating and financing activities and, when appropriate, through the use of derivative financial instruments. These derivative financial instruments are utilized to hedge economic exposures as well as reduce earnings and cash flow volatility resulting from shifts in market rates. Refer to Note 13 – Financial Instruments in the Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion on our financial risk management.
Assuming a 10% appreciation or depreciation in foreign currency exchange rates from the quoted foreign currency exchange rates at December 31, 2008, the potential change in the fair value of foreign currency-denominated assets and liabilities in each entity would not be significant because all material currency asset and liability exposures were economically hedged as of December 31, 2008. A 10% appreciation or depreciation of the U.S. Dollar against all currencies from the quoted foreign currency exchange rates at December 31, 2008 would have an $824 million impact on our cumulative translation adjustment portion of equity. The amount permanently invested in foreign subsidiaries and affiliates, primarily Xerox Limited, Fuji Xerox, Xerox Canada Inc. and Xerox do Brasil, and translated into Dollars using the year-end exchange rates, was $8.2 billion at December 31, 2008.
Interest Rate Risk Management
The consolidated weighted-average interest rates related to our debt and liabilities to subsidiary trust issuing preferred securities for 2008, 2007 and 2006 approximated 6.6%, 7.1%, and 6.8%, respectively. Interest expense includes the impact of our interest rate derivatives.
Virtually all customer-financing assets earn fixed rates of interest. The interest rates on a significant portion of the Company’s term debt are fixed.
As of December 31, 2008, approximately $1.1 billion of our debt and liability to subsidiary trust issuing preferred securities carried variable interest rates, including the effect of pay-variable interest rate swaps we are utilizing with the intent to reduce the effective interest rate on our high coupon debt.
The fair market values of our fixed-rate financial instruments are sensitive to changes in interest rates. At December 31, 2008, a 10% change in market interest rates would change the fair values of such financial instruments by approximately $317 million. The recent market events have not required us to materially modify or change our financial risk management strategies with respect to our exposures to interest rate and foreign currency risk.